Wednesday, November 22, 2017

A Cruel Car Crash

On Friday, there was a car crash by the school. Adrian and I were at my grandmas house. I was in the living room, and Adrian was in the backyard. I heard a big noise outside, so then I went to check. I saw a lady in her car, and a huge truck. The lady's car bumper was smashed. We figured out that the lady hit the truck. The firefighters and police men came. Eventually it was all over. There were no people hurt in the accident. It was all weird because it was right in front of my grandma's house.

The crash

Thursday, November 16, 2017

The BAD Car Accident

On October 19th, my mom got into a really BAD car accident. When the car collided with her car when she was almost across the stop sign. My mom said that her car spun in a circle. The airbags deployed.  My mom was going to go pick up my sister from young story tellers. At this point I was at home. As I was doing my homework, I heard a loud noise. She was all the way down the street and I heard it from my house. I didn't suspect anything because I hear that sound a lot in my neighborhood. She called the police and the fire department and they came to check on her. She was OK but her shoulder was hurting. She had to go to the emergency room the next morning. She wanted to make sure that nothing was fractured.

This accident caused many conflicts. The first thing is that no one can sit in the front because the seat belt is locked. Another reason is that when we turn a corner or go over a hump the tire rubs against a metal piece. It makes a loud noise and it scares me. It also affects my family because the door doesn't open, nor does the window roll down.  Now when I go to school we have to park instead of pulling up to valet and getting out.

In reality, we will get a new car. I am so excited because our new car is really cool. My mom and dad went to Pasadena. They looked at a car and test drove it. They fell in love with it. When they went my mom had to sit in the back because the seat belt is locked in the front. Now I won't have to hear a scratchy noise when we pull in our drive way or turn the corner. I now know that it is safer for me to sit in the back because I know that airbag can really injure me. When we get our new car I will always sit in the back unless I have to sit in the front.
This is where the car was hit. As you can see there is a piece hanging out.

Native American Day

On November 11th every single classtopia had an amazing day. And if you're asking why, then here is your answer. That day was called "Native American Day". This is because we have been reading a lot about Native Americans, so our teacher decided it would be best if we could experience how Native Americans lived back then. And that is exactly what we did.

We had many activities planned so we needed all the help we could get from every single Classtopia. Some Classtopians brought tents. The reason they brought tents because it was going to be used as a shelter. It was supposed to look like our campsite. Other Classtopians even brought in face paint but we never got to use it. Some  brought in dye but not any dye. We used fruits, coffee, and tea to dye our shirts. We did this because back then they didn't have food coloring or paint. They used natural resources to color things.

Then we talked about things that the Native Americans used to do. Then we just got on with our day.

We had many activities planned.
Like dying our shirts, planting corn, setting up tents, making string, weaving, hunting games, and eating.

The things we used to dye our shirts were pomegranates, coffee, onion skin and tea bags. We then got a tub, some pots and a gallon. Then we put the pomegranate in the tub and started getting the color out of the seeds.  We filled up all the other containers. When that was done we got the shirts and put them in. We hung them to dry on the fence.

Then we planted corn. Well only some of us did and I was lucky enough to be able to. We first turned the soil over and removed the weeds. Then added more fresh soil. Next we planted the corn seeds. Lastly, we watered.

Another activity was to put up the tents. The tents were only brought in by some Classtopians. Kylie, Christopher, and Jesse. It took them a long time to set them up but they did. They all turned out pretty well.

The next activity was to make string. Only 4 people could do this at one time though but we all took turns. The first four people were Lalia, Jessica, Isael, and Leslie. They did this by pounding on some Yucca leaves. They got a stump and a piece of wood. The goal was to pounds on the Yucca leaf and get all the green stuff off. Then you would twine them together to make the string. We worked all day but no one was able to complete the work. We will have to try this again

Then we ate seeds and nuts, turkey, cranberry, corn bread with honey and some greens. Some Classtopians ate in their tents. Then we realized it was time to go home so we started to clean up. I believe it was the an amazing day.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Native American Day

On Thursday we had Native American Day. We spent the whole day outside, from the time we started school to the time school was over. We were Native Americans for the whole day.

To start the day our teacher showed us some things the she brought from home. These artifacts could have been used by the Native Americans. She also brought a big woven rug and two smaller ones that we could sit on to be more comfortable than sitting on concrete. We all did not fit on those rugs, but luckily some other people brought things to sit on. After looking at all the amazing things our teacher brought she sent some people to go collect some yucca leaves over in one of our gardens. We were going to use the leaves to make rope/string. First we had to collect them soak them in water then hit them with smooth wooden blocks. When we were done we had to soak them again and make sure that the small strings would not get tangled.

Some Classtopians brought tents to set up so we all helped set them up. Jesse brought two small tents, Christopher brought a very large tent, and Kylie brought one medium sized tent. It took a while for us to set up the two tents since most of us had never built tents. Kylie's did not take long because she knew how to set it up. However Christopher's took at least an hour, since it was so big.

Some of us girls were interested in weaving so that's what we did. Our teacher showed some of us how to do it ad soon enough most of us got it. Some of us made small baskets or basket handles. I was able to make a bracelet but it was hard to adjust.

Some of us brought some dye to dye our clothes in. We brought in white shirts to dye. We had pomegranate, coffee, green tea, and some onion skin as our dyes.We had those four choices for our clothes. My favorite one was coffee. I liked it because it made my shirt smell like coffee. It smelled very good.

                                                We all had fun as Native Americans on Thursday.
Setting up one of Jesse's tents
Setting up Kylie's tent
Setting up the hardest tent of all.

These are the Yucca leaves to we used to make the rope/string.



A Trip To A Farm

On November 11, I went to a farm with my family. We were invited by our uncle, because one of his friends was going to kill a cow. We came because we wanted to buy FRESH MEAT.

I woke up at 6:30, and got ready. By 7:30, everyone in my family was ready. We all got in the car, and waited for my dad to finish checking the car to make sure everything was fine. By 8:00, we were on the road.

By 9:50, we were off the freeway, and were very close to our destination.  We had to drive slowly, because the pavement had ended, so we had to drive on dirt. By 10:00 we were out of our car, and entering this gate.

We walked down a path made out of stepping stones. The first thing I saw was this HUGE piece of meat hanging off of a hook! There was also a table with a lot of meat on it. My uncles had this mini chainsaw looking thing, and were cutting pieces of meat that they wanted to buy.

While my mom was getting our meat, my uncle and dad came with us kids to see the animals. My uncle had been to this farm before, which was important. There were THREE GUARD DOGS, and they were the same type that police people use. The dogs only smelled us, then went away. If my uncle had not been there, I would have been even more worried about the dogs biting us or something.

Anyways, as soon as we walked in, I saw a chicken pen. There was one grown-up chicken, and a bunch of other baby chicks. One white chick had yellow around his mouth, and was shivering. I felt bad, because he was sick. One chick escaped, so my dad grabbed it. We had to be careful,  because the guard dogs would eat it. I touched it's head, which was very fluffy.

After that, we went to see the cows. There were two cows. One was a brown cow, and the other was black-and -white. The brown cow was WAY bigger than the other one. I tossed some hay at it, but it just landed on the floor.

In a big pen, there were about 10 goats, and 2 sheep. When we got close to them, they started trotting away. The sheep were all white, but its hair was a little dirty.

Then, we went to see the pigs. There were 4 pigs, and they were big. There were also a lot of flies near their pen!

Next to the pig's pen, there were 2 TURKEYS! Their feathers looked like peacock feathers because they were spread out like that.

Then, we went back to were the other adults were. They had cooked some meat, so we ate tacos. They were really delicious!

After eating, I went to play with the smaller white dogs. There were two of them. I played with the younger one. I threw a stuffed bear in the air, and he went to go catch it. After a while, I went inside, because I heard that there was a puppy! I saw the puppy, and he was so ADORABLE! He was tiny, and was sitting on some blankets. I fed him some of his food, and when he chewed, he made a crunch sound. I let him lick my hand, too.

After that, it was time to go. I was sad to go, but I know I will come back another time.

The older dog. 

The big chunk of meat.

Monday, November 6, 2017

Tin Foil Art Work

This is the Tin Foil art project.

This is group #1. 
This group #2.
This is group #3.
This is group #4.
This is group #5.

Book Department Goes To The Book Fair

Since the garden department was spending money on plants we decided that we would spend on books. The library is having a book fair. So we took advantage of that. We counted and then, went to check out the books. We saw the librarian and asked what would be some good books to buy. She gave us some recommendations. We bought 5 books that seemed most interesting.

We are going to buy a book called Wonder from Jessie when he is finished reading it. He going to sell it to us for $5.00. Jessie does not know how to make money. He originally bought the book for $16.99.

Here is our list: Auggie & Me, Wish, Ninth Ward, A Night Divided, and Dirt. We got five different books. We have five groups in the class, and are going to give one book to each group to start with. We hope that our classmates will like these books and enjoy reading them as well.

These are all the books we bought.

This is the receipt.

This is when we were paying for the books.

Wow a Big Beautiful Flower

Our LC. "Miss Wonderful" From Fred Clarke at SVO finally opened.  We have been waiting for it to open for a while. On Friday we stayed at school for a long time to see if it would open. Our teacher cheated a little and blew on the petals. One side opened and we saw the color. We stayed a little while longer and were able to see more of the color. We sent an e-mail to Fred to show him our little plant. It got too late and we had to leave school. A sad that we could not see all of it. But the 7 of us that stayed late each day with our teacher to do a special garden class, she calls us MASTER GARDENERS, got a preview. This morning we all got to see just how wonderful Fred CLARKE is.

Now we know how she got her name. She is a cross of Blc. Mari's Song 'CTM217' x L. anceps 'Ultimo'.

This is the picture from Friday evening.

This is Monday morning

Day of the Dead Art Work

We went to art class this semester with Ms A. She was a great teacher and we learned a lot. Our favorite piece was for the Day of the Dead. These are the painting we did on canvas. We had an art show at school for Hispanic Heritage and everything was in gallery style. We got to walk around the whole school to see all the other art pieces. It was fun.

This is group #4. Here we have Aiden, Elizabeth, Yazmine, Sergio, Daniela, and Kaleb.

This is group #2. Here we have Camila, Jalaysia, Bianca, Kylie, Leslie and I.

This is group #5 with Abby, Jesse, Diana, Natalia, Alyssa, and Ashley.
This  is group #1 with Jessica, Katherine, Isael, Brianna, and Daisy.
This is group #4 with Lindsay, Mariana, Niven, Adrian, Nathaniel, and Christopher.

Moving To A New Home

Yes, what wonderful news! On November 1'st, my mom and step dad gave me really good news. The news that I got was that we are moving to a new house! The house has 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, a living room, and a kitchen.  

It also has a small front space that has a lemon/orange tree and a mango tree that is very sick. The only thing that I do not like about the house is that the lady who used to live there had 30 cats! So the odor still stayed in the house and the cats still think that it is a hang out. We will have to work on getting them to stop coming to our house.

 My room has been painted purple by my stepdad. Of course I did not choose the color because I hate purple. My mom told my baby sister to choose the color,'' like a one year olds already knows their colors'', so she chose purple.

My mom felt bad, so she gave me an opportunity to get the left over space outside, and turn it into my own special garden. I hope that I can convince my neighbors from my apartment to give me some of their plants, or our soon to be neighbors to give me some of their Aeoniums. I can also get some plants from school and from my teacher.

Everything is perfect, even though this house does not have all of my expected choices, but maybe in the future I can add some of my own ideas.

This is my new house.

Garden department bought more plants

This morning, our teacher brought some plants to school. The garden department made a decision to buy some of the plants that came in. We got our money out and were able to buy some plants for the garden. We are really happy because now we can propagate some of the plants and sell them to the students in the Horticulture to make more money.  We invested $43.67.  These are the plants we were able to buy :

  • 2 Hoyas carnosa with red spots each for 3.75
  • Echeveria cetosa 4.99
  • Cotyledon  orbiculata lady smith 4.99
  • 2 Tradescantia Moses in a cradle each for 3.95
  • Geranium Greengold Kleiner Liebling 2.75
  • Nepthytis 1.25
  • Tradescantia with pink stripe 4.99
  • Echeveria  NOID 5.98
We plan to make a lot of money when we grow our new plants. We picked these plants because they will be easy to propagate and easy for people to grow on their own.

Plants that we bought

Friday, November 3, 2017

Our Garden

I would like to show you my garden that me and my grandma grew so far. We started when I was 5. Our garden is more beautiful than before and it just keeps growing. The garden had changed more than I thought because it stared out as seeds and now we have plants. Here are some pictures of the garden now, sorry but I don't have the pictures of our garden before.                                                                       

This my grandmas  lovely plant.

Some succulents
This is our garden that we have so far and it looks nice.

Monday, October 30, 2017

Halloween Alter

On October 31st, my mom and I will be decorating our altar for day of the dead!!! We decorate our altar with all different kinds of fruits, like guavas, banana, pineapple, apple, oranges, jicama, persimmon, and tangerines. We also put aguinaldos. If you don't know what that is, then I will explain it to you. An aguinaldo is a kind of decorations like tables with every kind of foods on it, except it is not real. We also put sugar skulls with lots of decorations on it.

Another thing we put is, this kind of pot with candy glued on it because it is not real. The last thing we put is, a bowl with rice, chicken, and mole. We buy this kind of bread, that is called bread of the dead, which they call in Spanish Pan De Muerto. We put another table under the alter because we put food there for the dead. I hope our plan turns out great and I hope I will enjoy helping my mom.  

Saturday, October 28, 2017

The Ronald Reagan Library

Today, I went to a field trip to the Ronald Reagan Library. I was really excited, because I was the president. Everyone got a badge. They had to wear it all day. The badge said who you were. I was the president.

First, we went walking around, and the first cool thing I saw was a BIG airplane. It used to be Ronald Reagan's Airplane. We got to go inside, and it was pretty big. There was a little kitchen inside, and on a table was fake chocolate cake. In Mr.Reagan's room, there was a big jar of jelly beans. There were a few more rooms, then some seats. I think that the most important part of the plane was the place where the nuclear football was located. (a replica/fake) There was this section with computers. ('old ones') You could make any secret call from there without being hacked! In that same section, there was a black briefcase. The black briefcase was called the nuclear football, because the president could send a nuclear bomb if he was in danger.

After that, we went to a helicopter. To the left, was the control room. That is where the pilots sit at. Then, there were a bunch of seats.

After that, we went to the museum part. I saw a painting of Mr.Reagan, made out of Jelly Belly Jelly Beans! Mr. Reagan LOVED jellybeans, which is why jellybeans were all over the place. There was also a picture of him, that was made entirely of butterfly's wings. (no insect was harmed)

As we went along, I discovered new things. I learned that Mr. Reagan's family was not rich. His father was a drunk, so he did not earn money. The mother put two pennies under a loose tile, so that no one could ever say that they were penniless. Ronald Reagan had to work. His first job was washing dishes. This was to pay for his schooling. Then, he became a lifeguard, and saved 70 lives! After that, he got roles in movies,and then did a bunch of other stuff.

It turns out that Ronald Reagan was SHOT by a man named John Wickley Jr. The bullet bounced off of a car, and then hit the president. Because it did not hit him directly, the president survived.

Then, we went back in time. We were in the same situation as in 1983, when Cuba wanted to make Grenada a communist island. This was a problem, because 800 American students were in Grenada, attending St.George's Medical school. I, the president, got advise from my advisers. I had to make decisions, and see if I made the same decisions as Ronald Reagan. I was a little bit nervous, but everything went well.

We were a little bit short on time, so we did not get to spend a lot of time at the Ronald Reagan Library. I hope I can come again with my family.

The front of my badge.

The back of my badge.

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Thank You, Modernfloristry

Dial Jenson and Sean McGowan from Modernfloristry,  on behalf of the Garden Department and the HORTICULTURE CLUB we thank you so much for making a donation to our school. We are students from the school and we use this blog to write about our interests. As you can see we have a Horticulture club that meets on Mondays after school. The Students in the garden clubs are from 4-10 years old and are very interested in growing plants. In the garden department we work before school to take care of the garden areas we started last year. Most of our plants are donated by our teacher and her friends.
We are happy that your business is located so close to our school and one of your employees is connected to the school. She brings us the plants that you have donated to us and we are very happy to get them. The plants that you have donated to us are in our garden area. The plants have changed the way the area looks, they form a nice border. We love that they are so big and cover up empty spaces. We have used the plants to make an empty wall a little bit more beautiful. We put the plants in some nice, big pots that were also donated.

The plants make our garden a big deal! People are giving us new compliments about how much nicer the garden area looks.

Whenever we walk by the plants,  it feels like we are in a proper garden. I am sure that other students at our school feel the same way. You should know that we really appreciate your donation, so THANK YOU!

Plants against the big wall.

The plants by the poles. 

The plants by the wall. 

Thursday, October 19, 2017

Squishy Balls For Sale.

On October, 18, 2017 My mom bought me 3 squishies. If you don't know what they are it is a medium sized ball and it is full of slime. It also has a net around it. Which is why it is called a squishy because when you squish it some little  round small balls stick out. It is so satisfying. There are two kinds of squishies.  Some that you squish but it doesn't have slime in it. It has foam. Then the other one is the one with slime. Then there is another it is like the one with the slime in it but the slime inside of it is a diffrent color then the outside.  I got it cheap because it was 1 dollar. Since it was cheap my mom said why don't you sell it. I said okay. I decided to sell it for 1 dollar and 50 cents. I decided that if I sold it for 2 dollars no one would buy. So I thought why not 1 dollar fifty. I would still get a 50 cents profit. I started to sell today. The people who bought  was Daniela. But many Classtopians thought they were cool but they didn't have money so they asked me to save it for them. I think tommorow a lot of people will buy.

color changing sqishy with bubbles sticking out.

regular squishy 

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

The Air Show Blast

On Saturday, October 15, 2017 I went to the air show. We were in Apple Valley, so we decided, why not go have some fun? The air show is where people fly planes in the sky. The planes usually go in a straight line, then they cross in different ways. They cross each other. I thought they were going to crash, but they are highly trained to use the planes, and do tricks with them. It was so cool seeing them right in front of my eyes. There was a plane that stayed on the ground, so people could see it up close.  I was sitting down watching the planes for about an hour. At the end we left. I loved going there and watching the planes.  Hope I can go again.

The air show
The planes

The plane

My First Day At Horticulture Club

Today was my first day at garden club. After school, I stayed in my classroom, and we waited for other people to come. About 15 Classtopians came to the club. My little sister came, too. There were a few kids from another class that joined us. Once everyone was here, we started. First, we introduced ourselves to everyone, especially the new people we did not know. We said our names, and the reason we were here. After that, we got our journals. We were going to take notes in these.

We visited all of our gardens. We talked about what we needed to do. On Saturday, some volunteers cleaned up an area, or they mostly cleared up an area. There were a little bit of weeds left, but we would take care of those later. We started thinking about what we would put in that area. Maybe we would mount Orchids on the trees.

Then, we watered a garden. We wet the leaves (fronds) of a GIGANTIC fern. It was not extremely big, but it was the most biggest fern I have ever seen! This is a gift from our friend "The".

While  we were in a garden, my mom came to pick me up. I left at about 3:45, so there was still time left, but that was fine. I wonder what will happen next week at the club.
This is my journal

No School Saturday

On Saturday, a day of NO SCHOOL, I spend that perfect day playing with my cute dog, Coco. Coco can be a funny name but don't make fun of it because my big brother makes fun of her. It makes me feel bad because Coco has feelings too.

This is Coco, my dog.

I have been trying to train her to do tricks.We were outside  playing together and I gave her a treat and told her to sit but she was running and wagging her tail. I told her to sit but she did a cool trick and I gave her the treat. She is an amazing dog and can be lazy sometimes. Coco is the only dog I can play with and she has a BEAUTIFULLY colored fur and CUTE eyes. Coco and I play games but she is afraid of loud noises. My dog helps me get the rope to make a swing of our own. I will never want to let her go even when I get old. Coco is the greatest  dog I could have.                                                                                                  

Google Accounts Set Up

Today, October17, the Help Department helped a third grade class. What we did was that we needed to help kids set up their gmail account for them to use the G-suite and e-mail. Other kids from the class already did their google accounts with help from our help department last week. 

Each Classtopian in the department helped 2 kids. We are happy to help them because the next time they might help another class when we are gone off to Middle School.  

Sunday, October 15, 2017

Boring Lunch

Lunch is getting a bit boring. Every single week, we get the same menu! On October 10, 2017, we got nachos with beans and cheese. The nachos chips are so dangerous. If you break them, the edges are so sharp that you can cut the inside of your mouth. You could make your self bleed. I know this information because once I had a chipped lip and I ate the nacho and it burned. The bean and cheese are chunky. It has a lot of tomato sauce. The nachos are salty, if you have a chipped lip, it is going to burn! Nachos, beans, cheese, and chocolate milk do not go together. It just taste so weird!

Number One Book

I have read a LOT of books in my life. I have read HUNDREDS of books, so I have a long list of favorite books. In third grade, my favorite author was Mildred D. Taylor. But, now, in fifth grade, Pam Munoz Ryan is my favorite author. In class, we have read Esperanza Rising, Becoming Naomi Leon, and Echo.

Echo was the most recent book we have read by Pam Munoz Ryan. And, of of all the books I have read, Echo is my favorite. Making Echo my number one favorite book is a big deal, because I have a LOT of favorite books.

Echo is very different from the rest of the books that she has written. When I was reading Echo, I cried, because some parts of the story were very strong. I could relate to how the characters were feeling. Echo hooks you. If you start reading it, it is almost impossible to stop reading it. Echo has something special about it.

I really recommend you read Echo, because I give it FIVE stars.  I am sure that as you start reading, you will want to keep on going.

I was actually surprised how good Echo was, but now I know how good Pam Munoz Ryan writes. I will watch out for any new books that she writes.

Halloween Pumpkin Making

One day I was walking from school to go home and as usual I see a Farmer’s Market. There at the Farmer’s Market there’s this man. Every time the farmer’s market is there he gives me free strawberries because he is selling them.

But he was not at his stand. Which seemed suspicious! I spotted him buying groceries from the market. I tried to get his attention but it was hopeless. It was like to him I was not there.
Also I saw this lady passing by and at first she passed me and then she came and said, "We are decorating pumpkins. Would you like to decorate one/"   I said sure because I felt very tired from school. so I thought if I learning in school I should at least have some activity to do in the meanwhile. I asked my mom and she said yes so I just went WHOO!  I loved all the options  that they had. And there was a few pumpkins but I chose the biggest pumpkin they had it was orange.

Why I Chose The Decorations I Chose?
        File:BlackDot.svg - Wikimedia Commons My decision was googly eyes to make maybe similar to pumpkins I have seen and some that I haven’t seen before.

         File:BlackDot.svg - Wikimedia Commons I chose sharpies because they added a lot of color, they are permanent, and they were the only marker available.

San Pedro Fish Market

On October 8th, I went to San Pedro Fish Market and Restaurants!! The food was so good there because I love fish. At first, we went to my dad's cousin's house because his aunt died. After a while, we ate mole with chicken and when we were done, we did a prayer. When the prayer finished, we left and my dad asked us "Where do you guy's want to go?'' and my brother said "The Fish Market", and my dad said "Okay". When my brother said The Fish Market I told my mom "What's that?' and she said "Its a market with restaurants that sell fish and more sea food." My brother knew that because he said that before I was born, they used to go there a lot.

It took us about an hour to get there because there was A LOT of traffic. My mom said to go to sleep for a while because its going to take long to get there. I went to sleep for about..20 minutes and then I was watching a movie with my cousin on his phone. After a few minutes, we got there and it was smelling A LOT like fish!!! There were different kinds of restaurants in the Fish Market. I ordered a fried fish and it was so Delicious.
My fried fish
My mom, dad, and sister didn't finish their food, so we had to take it home because we didn't want to waste food. When we put the food in the box, we went down to the little pier to see the fish. We saw a big boat, a little boat, and a police boat. When we saw the big boat, there was a yellow hand that was waving at us. We saw the police boat picking up trash like paper plates, paper cups and chip bags. We saw the big boat with rooms on it, guests, and servants. The little boat carried people so they can go and see fishes and seals.

The thing that I didn't like about the fish market is that, you have to make a big line to go to the restroom. Where we ate, there was a restroom in the corner and I was going to go there, but they have closed the area by then. When we were about to leave, my brother wanted an ice cream, so my dad gave him money so he can go and by one. When he came back, he had 3 kinds of ice cream flavors. The ice cream flavors were pina colada, coconut, and gum. I had a blast at The Fish Market, I hope I get to go there again.

So Classtopians, have you been to San Pedro Fish Market??? If you haven't, then I recommend you to got there.

Big Boat
Police Boat
Little Boat
Ice cream

Left overs